.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Post 1 Post 2 Post 3 Post 4 Post 5 Post 6 Post 7 Post 8
What is a seismometer?
How does it work?
What else can a seismometer record?
Very sensitive seismometers have been used to record:
You can experiment with your own seismometer at home!
Want to learn more?
Check out these sites:
Text modified from the US Geologic Survey: https://tinyurl.com/hjg6f3v
Image from: https://www.sms-tsunami-warning.com/pages/seismology-measurement
Author: Chris Gaulin
Unlike the weather, earthquakes are a bit more difficult to predict and happen quickly. Prepare for an earthquake by:
1) mitigating some preventable common hazards,
2) having an emergency kit on hand
3) rehearsing what to do if the “big one” does happen.
Secure your stuff: Most injuries from an earthquake are caused by things breaking, collapsing, or falling. You likely have some top-heavy furniture hanging around. Even in a minor earthquake, objects can fall over and cause injury. Protect your pets, friends, and yourself by:
Insurance: While most insurance policies don’t cover earthquakes per se, damage from resultant fire or water damage may be covered. Regardless, you may want to investigate renter’s insurance and speak with a qualified agent. States like California and Washington, where earthquakes are more common, do offer insurance. General information on insurance can be found here.
Emergency Kit: Now that you have those hazards mitigated, here is a list of important items to keep accessible. This kit can be used for most emergencies (hurricane, wicked Nor’easter etc.)
More information on emergency kits and checklists can be found here.
Rehearse: So, your living area is prepared – are you? If you find yourself in an earthquake, there are three steps you should immediately take. 1) Drop, 2) Cover and 3) Hold On.
1. Drop/Lock: Get on the ground. Avoid moving more than a few steps to get somewhere safe.
2. Cover: Protect your head, neck and vital organs by kneeling. If there is a table or sturdy shelter, crawl under it.
3. Hold on: With one hand, secure your shelter while covering your head and neck. If you don’t have a shelter use both hands. Stay down until the shaking stops, and for at least 60 seconds after.
Think you’ve got it? Test your skills in the Beat the Quake Game!
Join with friends and colleagues on October 18, 2018 at 10:18 AM for the Great Northeast Shakeout! At that time, people throughout the country will stop what they’re doing and rehearse Drop-Cover-Hold On! After the drill, spend some time talking with your class or lab group about what hazards exist and anything you can do to stay safe in the event of an actual earthquake.
Author: Lauren Shea
How are earthquakes measured?
Seismologists often report earthquakes using the moment magnitude scale. The Richter scale may sound more familiar, but it is no longer in use. The moment magnitude scale has replaced the Richter scale because it includes more variables that are now able to be measured with modern-day instrumentation, making earthquake measurements more precise.
The moment magnitude scale is a function the seismic moment, which is a measure of the energy released during an earthquake.
Where is this release of energy coming from?
Generally speaking, sometimes along fault zones, the surfaces get “stuck”, thus building up stress; a natural earthquake occurs when there is a release of stored energy due to the locked fault rupturing. One way to measure the seismic moment is by measuring the area of the fault rupture, the displacement that the fault slipped, and the force that was required to get the fault to rupture. Another way to measure the seismic moment is by measuring the energy radiated from seismograms. An illustration of a slipping fault plane can be seen here:
Image source: IRIS
Is there really much of a difference between Boston getting hit with a magnitude 3.0 earthquake versus a magnitude 2.0 earthquake?
Yes! For each whole number increase on the moment magnitude scale, the amount of ground shaking increases ten times and the amount of energy increases 30 times. Here’s what that difference looks like:
The difference in energy released between the two is exponential. A magnitude 2.0 earthquake has an energy release equivalent to 56 kilograms of explosive, whereas a 3.0 earthquake has an energy release equivalent to 1,800 kilograms of explosive, about the same as a lightning bolt. As you move up the moment magnitude scale, this difference in energy release only increases, as can be shown here:
Image Source: IRIS
However, neither a magnitude 2.0 nor a magnitude 3.0 earthquake is likely to be felt by a Bostonian because both are considered to be “micro-earthquakes” that only do minor damage.
If Boston usually experiences earthquakes on the lower end of the magnitude scale, does that mean we’re safe from a major (large magnitude) earthquake?
Not necessarily! While it’s true that the New England area isn’t prone to large earthquakes (most are <3.0), they are still possible. The reason why many more small earthquakes are measured is because the higher up the moment magnitude scale you go, the less frequent the earthquakes.
While uncommon, Boston has seen large earthquakes before! In 1755, New England was hit by a major earthquake near Cape Ann, which is estimated to have been around a magnitude 5.9-6.3 earthquake. The energy released would have been equivalent to approximately 56,000,000 kilograms of explosive, similar to the Hiroshima nuclear bomb.
The moment magnitude scale measures the amount of energy released during an earthquake. As earthquake magnitude increases, the ground shakes more, thus increasing the risk for potential destruction, such as property damage and loss of life. In an area as highly populated and urbanized as Boston, even one large magnitude earthquake could have devastating effects.
Author: Johanna Fischi
Boston is home to many historical buildings that date back to before the founding of the United States. But what would happen to these landmarks if a major earthquake occurred in the city today?
How do Earthquakes Damage Buildings?
Buildings are damaged by the strength of the earthquake shaking, length of the shaking, the type of soil and the type of building. Seismic building codes are meant to reduce seismic risk by offering structure design and construction guidelines which help limit the amount of damage or injury caused by a building shaking during an earthquake. Unsafe buildings can injure people if the entire structure collapses or if people are hit with falling debris.
Example of building shaking during the 2011 M6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake
The Problem with Older Buildings
The International Code Council and FEMA have different regulations for the construction of new buildings, and for the retrofitting of old, existing buildings. In Massachusetts, structures not built within the past 44 years can be very hazardous because they are not up to current the seismic safety standards. One of the greater seismic safety hazards with older buildings is that they are built with brick and mortar which often collapses easily during shaking because these materials are inflexible. In the United States, FEMA states that existing buildings only need to meet the seismic building codes present at the time the structure was built.
In order for older structures to meet modern seismic safety standards they must be retrofitted. Retrofitted means the existing structure is modified so that it will experience less damage during an earthquake. This process is often costly and done voluntarily causing older buildings to be the biggest contributor to seismic risk today.
Is Boston up to Code?
Earthquakes do occur in New England on a regular basis. A larger earthquake, like a magnitude 5.0 to 6.9 is only expected to occur about every 450 years. Many of the buildings in Boston were built in the 19th and 20th century and are built with brick and mortar. Areas of the city are also built on loosely compacted landfill meaning there is a liquefaction hazard.
Example of a brick and mortar building after the 2011 M6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake
In 1975, Massachusetts implemented seismic building codes for any structures built since then. However, 75% of Boston was built before 1975. This means older buildings may not be able to withstand a major earthquake. The city’s infrastructure, such as its gas and water lines have a similar problem.
On the Boston University campus, the Bay State brownstones are at risk of being damaged in an earthquake. Over 80% of these structures are unreinforced masonry. The brownstones are also built on top of underground timber pilings. The shifting watertable has caused the wooden pilings to be exposed to air making them rot. In an earthquake the pilings would provide no support for the building and the structure could collapse.
New England experiences 100 earthquakes every year with a magnitude 1 to 2. The last magnitude 6.0 earthquake occurred on Cape Ann in 1755. Another earthquake of that intensity is not expected for hundreds of years. However, in the event that a large magnitude earthquake does occur, we can minimize damages by retrofitting major buildings in the Boston area.
Structures built since 2000 following the ICC guidelines and will be built with multiple types of anti-seismic technology. Newer structures will be made from steel or wood that are flexible but also maintain the integrity of the structure under stress during an earthquake.
Examples of Anti-Seismic Technology
Base Isolation: The base of the building does not touch the surrounding bedrock. When an earthquake causes the ground to shake laterally, the seismic lateral shaking is transferred to the building possibly causing damage. A base isolator reduces the shaking the building experiences by allowing the foundation of the building to move with the shaking reducing the effect of shaking on the structure. An example of base isolation are oil dampers. The building stands on shock absorbers so that when the structure experiences lateral movement the shaking is transferred to large pistons under the building which are surrounded by oil. The mechanical energy of the shaking is converted into heat energy when it hits the oil reducing the structure’s shaking.
Tuned Mass Dampers: Towards the top of tall buildings a ball of huge mass is suspended with steel cables from the structure. The ball acts as a pendulum when the building shakes. The ball moves in the opposite direction of the structure counteracting the shaking. The mass is also tuned to the frequency of the building in order to better help stabilize the building.
Learn More About Building Damage During Earthquakes
An important aspect of anti-seismic technology is creating architectural designs that help prevent damage from occurring to the building. The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program offers 7 characteristics of strong design of a seismic reducing structure:
1) Stable Foundations: The structure’s foundation can withstand ground deformation, lateral shaking, and liquefaction. This is accomplished through deep foundations that are widely set.
2) Continuous Load Paths: All parts of the structure are connected and securely attached in order to prevent the building from pulling apart that can cause collapse.
3) Adequate stiffness and strength: A building must be sturdy enough in order to withstand vertical and lateral shaking. This shaking can cause a building to shift off its foundation.
4) Regularity: The structure’s mass, strength and stiffness is consistent throughout the building so that movement will be about the same through the building during an earthquake.
5) Redundancy: There are multiple earthquake withstanding reinforcements within a building so that some are able to fail and the building can still support itself and not collapse.
6) Ductility and toughness: The materials of a building are able to experience stress and still support the structure with little damage. This is why wood and steel are often good building materials because they are ductile and yield to stresses without losing the integrity of the structure.
7) Ruggedness: A building material has structural strength and maintains its integrity throughout shaking.
Text Modified from IRIS: BuildingsInEQs.pdf
University of Manchester: www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/teaching/civil/structuralconcepts/.../30.pdf
The Daily Star: https://www.thedailystar.net/spaces/top-3-earthquake-resistant-technologies-199750
The Boston Globe: https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2015/07/23/major-earthquake-will-hit-new-england-again-someday/3MAogFwcnqxY6jNU2qkwYP/story.html
Christine Regalla is a geology professor in the Earth and Environment Department at Boston University. See what she and her students do to study earthquakes by visiting their website or by following them on Twitter and Instagram (@Rengellia).